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* [[Siril:Tutorial_sequence|Work on a sequence of converted images]]
 
* [[Siril:Tutorial_sequence|Work on a sequence of converted images]]
 
* [[Siril:Tutorial_preprocessing|Pre-processing images]]
 
* [[Siril:Tutorial_preprocessing|Pre-processing images]]
* [[Siril:Tutorial_manual_registration|Registration (PSF image alignment)]]
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* [[Siril:Tutorial_manual_registration|Registration (Global star alignment)]]
 
* → '''Stacking'''
 
* → '''Stacking'''
  
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The final thing to do with Siril is to stack the images. Go to the "stacking" tab, indicate if you want to stack all images, only selected images or the best images regarding the value of FWHM previously computed. Siril proposes several algorithms for stacking computation.
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The final step to do with Siril is to stack the images. Go to the "stacking" tab, indicate if you want to stack all images, only selected images or the best images regarding the value of FWHM previously computed. Siril proposes several algorithms for stacking computation.
 
* Sum Stacking
 
* Sum Stacking
This is the simplest algorithm: each pixel in the stack is summed, using 32-bit precision, and the result is normalized to 16-bit. The increase in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is proportional to <math>\sqrt{N}</math>, where N is the number of images.
+
This is the simplest algorithm: each pixel in the stack is summed using 32-bit precision, and the result is normalized to 16-bit. The increase in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is proportional to <math>\sqrt{N}</math>, where <math>N</math> is the number of images. Because of the lack of normalisation, this method should only be used for planetary processing.
 
* Average Stacking With Rejection
 
* Average Stacking With Rejection
** Sigma Clipping: Sigma Clipping is an iterative algorithm which will reject pixels whose distance from median will be farthest than two given values in sigma units (<math>\sigma_{low}</math>, <math>\sigma_{high}</math>).
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** Percentile Clipping: this is a one step rejection algorithm ideal for small sets of data (up to 6 images).
** Median Sigma Clipping: Median Sigma Clipping is the same algorithm except than the rejected pixels are replaced by the median value.
+
** Sigma Clipping: this is an iterative algorithm which will reject pixels whose distance from median will be farthest than two given values in sigma units (<math>\sigma_{low}</math>, <math>\sigma_{high}</math>).
** Winsorized Sigma Clipping: Winsorized Sigma Clipping is very similar to Sigma Clipping method but it uses an algorithm based on Huber's work [1] [2].
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** Median Sigma Clipping: this is the same algorithm except than the rejected pixels are replaced by the median value of the stack.
** Linear Fit Clipping: Linear FIt Clipping is an algorithm developed by Juan Conejero, main developer of PixInsight [2]. It fits the best straight line (<math>y=ax+b</math>) of the pixel stack and rejects outliers. This algorithm performs very well with large stack and images containing sky gradients with differing spatial distributions and orientations.
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** Winsorized Sigma Clipping: this is very similar to Sigma Clipping method but it uses an algorithm based on Huber's work <ref>Peter J. Huber and E. Ronchetti (2009), Robust Statistics, 2nd Ed., Wiley</ref> <ref name="Juan">Juan Conejero, ImageIntegration, Pixinsight Tutorial</ref>.
 +
** Linear Fit Clipping: this is an algorithm developed by Juan Conejero, main developer of PixInsight <ref name="Juan" />. It fits the best straight line (<math>y=ax+b</math>) of the pixel stack and rejects outliers. This algorithm performs very well with large stacks and images containing sky gradients with differing spatial distributions and orientations.
  
 
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This algorithm is mainly used to construct long exposure star-trails images.
 
This algorithm is mainly used to construct long exposure star-trails images.
 
Pixels of the image are replaced by pixels at the same coordinates if intensity is greater.
 
Pixels of the image are replaced by pixels at the same coordinates if intensity is greater.
 +
* Pixel Minimum Stacking
 +
This algorithm is mainly used for cropping sequence by removing black borders.
 +
Pixels of the image are replaced by pixels at the same coordinates if intensity is lower.
  
 
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In the case of M8-M20 sequence, we have simply clicked on "Sum Stacking".
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In the case of NGC7635 sequence, we first used the "Winsorized Sigma Clipping" algorithm in "Average stacking with rejection" section, in order to remove satellite tracks (<math>\sigma_{low}=4</math> and <math>\sigma_{high}=3</math>).
  
 
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[[File:Siril stacking screen.png]]
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[[File:Siril stacking screen.png|700px]]
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 +
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The output console thus gives the following result:<br>
 +
    14:33:06: Pixel rejection in channel #0: 0.181% - 1.184%
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    14:33:06: Pixel rejection in channel #1: 0.151% - 1.176%
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    14:33:06: Pixel rejection in channel #2: 0.111% - 1.118%
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    14:33:06: Integration of 12 images:
 +
    14:33:06: Pixel combination ......... average
 +
    14:33:06: Normalization ............. additive + scaling
 +
    14:33:06: Pixel rejection ........... Winsorized sigma clipping
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    14:33:06: Rejection parameters ...... low=4.000 high=3.000
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    14:33:07: Saving FITS: file NGC7635.fit, 3 layer(s), 4290x2856 pixels
 +
    14:33:07: Execution time: 9.98 s.
 +
    14:33:07: Background noise value (channel: #0): 9.538 (1.455e-04)
 +
    14:33:07: Background noise value (channel: #1): 5.839 (8.909e-05)
 +
    14:33:07: Background noise value (channel: #2): 5.552 (8.471e-05)
  
 
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After that, the result is saved in the file named below the buttons, and is displayed in the grey and colour windows. You can adjust levels if you want to see it better, or use the different display mode. In our example the file is the stack result of the 80% best files, i.e., 96 over 119 files.
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[[File:Siril stacking result.png|700px]]
  
 
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<!--T:10-->
[[File:Siril stacking result.png|700px]]
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After that, the result is saved in the file named below the buttons, and is displayed in the grey and colour windows. You can adjust levels if you want to see it better, or use the different display mode. In our example the file is the stack result of all files, i.e., 12 files.
  
 
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The images above shows you the result displayed in Siril with the Histogram Equalization tool. Note the improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio regarding the result given for one frame in the previous [[Siril:Tutorial_preprocessing|step]] (take a look to the sigma value).
+
The images above picture the result in Siril using the Auto-Stretch rendering mode. Note the improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio regarding the result given for one frame in the previous [[Siril:Tutorial_preprocessing|step]] (take a look to the sigma value). The increase in SNR is of <math>21/5.1 =  4.11 \approx \sqrt{12} = 3.46</math> and you should try to improve this result adjusting <math>\sigma_{low}</math> and <math>\sigma_{high}</math>.
  
 
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[[File:Siril_Comparison_sigma.png|700px]]
 
[[File:Siril_Comparison_sigma.png|700px]]
 
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Here, comparison between the same crop of calibrated single frame and stacked result.
 
 
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[[File:Siril_Comparison.png|700px]]
 
  
 
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Now should start the process of the image with crop, background extraction (to remove gradient), and some other processes to enhance your image. To see processes available in Siril please visit this [[Siril:Manual|page]].
 
Now should start the process of the image with crop, background extraction (to remove gradient), and some other processes to enhance your image. To see processes available in Siril please visit this [[Siril:Manual|page]].
Here an example of what you can get with Siril :
+
Here an example of what you can get with Siril:
 
[[File:Siril_M8-M20_processed.png|700px]]
 
[[File:Siril_M8-M20_processed.png|700px]]
  
 
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[1]: Peter J. Huber and E. Ronchetti (2009), Robust Statistics, 2nd Ed., Wiley
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<references />
 
 
<!--T:18-->
 
[2]: Juan Conejero, ImageIntegration, Pixinsight Tutorial
 
  
 
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Latest revision as of 10:34, 13 September 2016

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Siril processing tutorial

Stacking

The final step to do with Siril is to stack the images. Go to the "stacking" tab, indicate if you want to stack all images, only selected images or the best images regarding the value of FWHM previously computed. Siril proposes several algorithms for stacking computation.

  • Sum Stacking

This is the simplest algorithm: each pixel in the stack is summed using 32-bit precision, and the result is normalized to 16-bit. The increase in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is proportional to [math]\sqrt{N}[/math], where [math]N[/math] is the number of images. Because of the lack of normalisation, this method should only be used for planetary processing.

  • Average Stacking With Rejection
    • Percentile Clipping: this is a one step rejection algorithm ideal for small sets of data (up to 6 images).
    • Sigma Clipping: this is an iterative algorithm which will reject pixels whose distance from median will be farthest than two given values in sigma units ([math]\sigma_{low}[/math], [math]\sigma_{high}[/math]).
    • Median Sigma Clipping: this is the same algorithm except than the rejected pixels are replaced by the median value of the stack.
    • Winsorized Sigma Clipping: this is very similar to Sigma Clipping method but it uses an algorithm based on Huber's work [1] [2].
    • Linear Fit Clipping: this is an algorithm developed by Juan Conejero, main developer of PixInsight [2]. It fits the best straight line ([math]y=ax+b[/math]) of the pixel stack and rejects outliers. This algorithm performs very well with large stacks and images containing sky gradients with differing spatial distributions and orientations.

These algorithms are very efficient to remove satellite/plane tracks.

  • Median Stacking

This method is mostly used for dark/flat/offset stacking. The median value of the pixels in the stack is computed for each pixel. As this method should only be used for dark/flat/offset stacking, it does not take into account shifts computed during registration. The increase in SNR is proportional to [math]0.8\sqrt{N}[/math].

  • Pixel Maximum Stacking

This algorithm is mainly used to construct long exposure star-trails images. Pixels of the image are replaced by pixels at the same coordinates if intensity is greater.

  • Pixel Minimum Stacking

This algorithm is mainly used for cropping sequence by removing black borders. Pixels of the image are replaced by pixels at the same coordinates if intensity is lower.

In the case of NGC7635 sequence, we first used the "Winsorized Sigma Clipping" algorithm in "Average stacking with rejection" section, in order to remove satellite tracks ([math]\sigma_{low}=4[/math] and [math]\sigma_{high}=3[/math]).

Siril stacking screen.png

The output console thus gives the following result:

   14:33:06: Pixel rejection in channel #0: 0.181% - 1.184%
   14:33:06: Pixel rejection in channel #1: 0.151% - 1.176%
   14:33:06: Pixel rejection in channel #2: 0.111% - 1.118%
   14:33:06: Integration of 12 images:
   14:33:06: Pixel combination ......... average
   14:33:06: Normalization ............. additive + scaling
   14:33:06: Pixel rejection ........... Winsorized sigma clipping
   14:33:06: Rejection parameters ...... low=4.000 high=3.000
   14:33:07: Saving FITS: file NGC7635.fit, 3 layer(s), 4290x2856 pixels
   14:33:07: Execution time: 9.98 s.
   14:33:07: Background noise value (channel: #0): 9.538 (1.455e-04)
   14:33:07: Background noise value (channel: #1): 5.839 (8.909e-05)
   14:33:07: Background noise value (channel: #2): 5.552 (8.471e-05)

Siril stacking result.png

After that, the result is saved in the file named below the buttons, and is displayed in the grey and colour windows. You can adjust levels if you want to see it better, or use the different display mode. In our example the file is the stack result of all files, i.e., 12 files.

Siril inal result.png

The images above picture the result in Siril using the Auto-Stretch rendering mode. Note the improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio regarding the result given for one frame in the previous step (take a look to the sigma value). The increase in SNR is of [math]21/5.1 = 4.11 \approx \sqrt{12} = 3.46[/math] and you should try to improve this result adjusting [math]\sigma_{low}[/math] and [math]\sigma_{high}[/math].

Siril Comparison sigma.png

Now should start the process of the image with crop, background extraction (to remove gradient), and some other processes to enhance your image. To see processes available in Siril please visit this page. Here an example of what you can get with Siril: Siril M8-M20 processed.png

  1. Peter J. Huber and E. Ronchetti (2009), Robust Statistics, 2nd Ed., Wiley
  2. 2.0 2.1 Juan Conejero, ImageIntegration, Pixinsight Tutorial

End of the processing tutorial. Return to the main documentation page for more illustrated tutorials.